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  • Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA)

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a rare autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by the loss of lower motor neurons (anterior horn cells) in the spinal cord and brainstem nuclei, resulting in progressive muscle weakening and atrophy. The severity and age at onset differ considerably. SMA was initially documented in the …

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  • Sputum gram stain

    Sputum gram stain

    Gram staining of expectorated sputum is a simplistic, easy-to-perform, commonly available, and low-cost diagnostic for pneumonia patients. Sputum Gram stain may detect many infections at the same time, and the test has a quick turnaround time. With adequate specimens, the sputum Gram stain can aid in establishing the right bacterial …

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  • Blood test of lactic acidosis

    Blood test of lactic acidosis

    Lactic acidosis is caused by high levels of lactic acid (lactate) and protons in the bodily secretions and is usually associated with poor clinical outcomes. The intensity and clinical setting of lactic acidosis influence its impact. Lactic acid, a carbohydrate metabolism intermediate, is mostly produced by white skeletal muscle, the …

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  • alpha-Thalassemia


    Thalassemia is a spectrum of genetic conditions in which one or more globin genes are defective, resulting in reduced or deficient synthesis of the related globin chains. Patients with minor genetic abnormalities are usually asymptomatic. Patients with more severe abnormalities have symptoms caused by one or more of the following: …

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  • Smartphone app can vibrate a drop of blood to evaluate its clotting efficiency

    Smartphone app can vibrate a drop of blood to evaluate its clotting efficiency

    A blood clot arises as a result of any injury to the body tissues. Blood clots, on the other hand, can trigger severe complications like strokes or MI in heart related dysfunction. Anticoagulants such as aspirin or warfarin are often administered for life as prophylaxis. These medications reduce clot formation …

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  • Why measure serum TMAO level?

    Why measure serum TMAO level?

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has a molecular mass of 75.1 daltons and belongs to the family of amine oxides. It is commonly found in the tissues of a wide range of marine creatures, particularly marine elasmobranchs, where TMAO is known to protect against the negative effects of temperature, salinity, high urea, …

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