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  • Immune Response to Viral Infections
    Viruses are well known for stimulating innate immune responses. Certain viruses, in particular, induce the production of interferons, which can inhibit viral replication by causing an antiviral reaction. NK cells are also in charge of virus control. NK cells are often the first line of protection against viral infections. To … Read more
  • Factors interfering analytic tests
    As a result of interfering factors, test results might be affected. When it comes to interference factors, it relies on the method adopted to analyze the same analyte. Hemolysis, lipemia, icterus, drugs, paraproteins, and other sample contaminants, such as gels, tube additives, and fibrin clots, are all examples of interference … Read more
  • Aspergillosis
    Micheli (1729) identified the genus Aspergillus, naming it after the perforated globe used to shower holy water during Catholic religious’ rites (aspergus te). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic invasive mycosis caused by hyaline molds of the genus Aspergillus (A.fumigatus, A.flavus, A.terreus, A.niger) and, less commonly, other Aspergillus species. Aspergillosis has a … Read more
  • Lupus Erythematosus Cell
    INTRODUCTION Hargraves et al., identified the LE cell phenomena in bone marrow in 1948. Lupus erythromatosus is an autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies attack cell nuclei components. In lupus erythromatosus, antibodies such as LE factor, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti double stranded DNA (anti ds DNA), anti single stranded DNA, anti … Read more
  • Mycoplasma
    Mycoplasmas differ from other bacteria because of their small size and absence of a cell wall. In taxonomy, mycoplasmas are distinguished from other bacteria in the Mollicutes class by the absence of cell walls (mollis, soft; cutis, skin, in Latin). Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides, the first to be identified, was … Read more
  • Anti-CCP
    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most prevalent inflammatory joint disease, affecting roughly 1% of the global adult population. It is characterized by persistent synovial inflammation, which frequently leads to progressive joint degeneration, disability, and a loss in quality of life. Although the exact cause of RA is unknown, autoimmunity is … Read more
  • Hypocalcemia and Hypercalcemia
    Calcium regulates a variety of physiologic functions, including neuromuscular communication, heart contractility, hormone production, and blood coagulation, and is essential for optimal cellular function and signaling. As a result of a number of feedback processes involving parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitmin D [1,25(OH)2D], extracellular calcium … Read more
  • Trichomonas vaginalis
    Introduction Donne (1836) was the first to report Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal secretion.  Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite that can infect both males and females’ urogenital systems. T. vaginalis is a pathogenic parasite that causes vaginitis, urethritis, and prostatitis. Infection of T. vaginalis is often thought to be a sexually … Read more
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA)
    PSA is a protein released by the prostate gland. PSA is a kallikrein-family serine protease that has been commonly used to screen men for prostate cancer. It’s also used to monitor recurrence and therapy response after initial treatment. PSA is developed in both normal and cancerous prostate tissue. PSA is … Read more
  • Principle of Spectrophotometer
    Introduction A spectrophotometer is an analytical instrument that measures analytes in a solution in both qualitative and quantitative ways. It is the most flexible, reliable, and commonly used instrument in clinical chemistry for clinical diagnosis of blood, urine, or tissues. The majority of clinical chemistry procedures have been designed to … Read more
  • Human Papillomaviruses
    Introduction Papillomavirus is one of two genera in the Papovaviridae family. The viruses in this category, however, vary significantly from those in the other genus, Polyomavirus, in terms of genome size, organization, and pathogenesis. Papillomaviruses (Latin: papilla = ‘nipple’; oma = ‘tumour’) cause benign skin tumors (papillomas) in their hosts, … Read more