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  • LAP (Leucine Aminopeptidase) Test
    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is an enzyme that is employed in a test for the presumptive identification of Streptococci. LAP is a peptidase that hydrolyzes peptide bonds near free amino groups. LAP is known as leucine aminopeptidase because it responds most efficiently with leucine. Leucine- β-naphthylamide is hydrolyzed to yield…
  • Flowcytometry Basics
    The measurement or quantification of cells suspended in a fluid phase is performed using flow cytometry. Fluorochrome-coupled antibodies specific for a certain cellular marker are used to label the cells. The fluidics chamber enables that cell travel via a laser beam in a single file, exciting the fluorochrome. A…
  • Cyclospora cayetanensis
    The coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis was recently identified as a human intestinal pathogen. Schneider identified it in 1881, and Ashford reported it as a human infection in 1979. Cyclosporiasis, which is caused by ingestion of sporulated oocysts in contaminated food or water, has been identified as a primary source…
  • LDL Cholesterol calculation equations
    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or LDL cholesterol, is a kind of fat that circulates in the blood, transporting cholesterol across the body to where it’s needed for cell repair and depositing it inside artery walls. Because cholesterol and triglycerides are water insoluble, they must be bound to proteins in order…
  • Types of Laboratory grade water
    Water quality is considered by many laboratorians to be one of the most important preanalytical variables that impacts laboratory testing. Many people believe water to be a laboratory reagent, and it’s used to make buffers, blanks, calibrators, controls, mobile phase, reaction mixtures, and reagent reconstitution for a variety of…
  • Acid base balances and Arterial blood gas
    Different kinds of biological fluids exist within the human body. These can be found in the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments, respectively. Plasma is stored in the vascular compartment. Interstitial (including lymphatic), cerebral, pleural, pericardial, and gastrointestinal fluids are all included in the extravascular compartment. All body fluids have…
  • Immune Response to Viral Infections
    Viruses are well known for stimulating innate immune responses. Certain viruses, in particular, induce the production of interferons, which can inhibit viral replication by causing an antiviral reaction. NK cells are also in charge of virus control. NK cells are often the first line of protection against viral infections….
  • Factors interfering analytic tests
    As a result of interfering factors, test results might be affected. When it comes to interference factors, it relies on the method adopted to analyze the same analyte. Hemolysis, lipemia, icterus, drugs, paraproteins, and other sample contaminants, such as gels, tube additives, and fibrin clots, are all examples of…
  • Aspergillosis
    Micheli (1729) identified the genus Aspergillus, naming it after the perforated globe used to shower holy water during Catholic religious’ rites (aspergus te). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic invasive mycosis caused by hyaline molds of the genus Aspergillus (A.fumigatus, A.flavus, A.terreus, A.niger) and, less commonly, other Aspergillus species. Aspergillosis has…