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  • Cyclospora cayetanensis
    The coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis was recently identified as a human intestinal pathogen. Schneider identified it in 1881, and Ashford reported it as a human infection in 1979. Cyclosporiasis, which is caused by ingestion of sporulated oocysts in contaminated food or water, has been identified as a primary source of … Read more
  • LDL Cholesterol calculation equations
    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or LDL cholesterol, is a kind of fat that circulates in the blood, transporting cholesterol across the body to where it’s needed for cell repair and depositing it inside artery walls. Because cholesterol and triglycerides are water insoluble, they must be bound to proteins in order to … Read more
  • Types of Laboratory grade water
    Water quality is considered by many laboratorians to be one of the most important preanalytical variables that impacts laboratory testing. Many people believe water to be a laboratory reagent, and it’s used to make buffers, blanks, calibrators, controls, mobile phase, reaction mixtures, and reagent reconstitution for a variety of lab … Read more
  • Acid base balances and Arterial blood gas
    Different kinds of biological fluids exist within the human body. These can be found in the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments, respectively. Plasma is stored in the vascular compartment. Interstitial (including lymphatic), cerebral, pleural, pericardial, and gastrointestinal fluids are all included in the extravascular compartment. All body fluids have critical … Read more
  • Immune Response to Viral Infections
    Viruses are well known for stimulating innate immune responses. Certain viruses, in particular, induce the production of interferons, which can inhibit viral replication by causing an antiviral reaction. NK cells are also in charge of virus control. NK cells are often the first line of protection against viral infections. To … Read more
  • Factors interfering analytic tests
    As a result of interfering factors, test results might be affected. When it comes to interference factors, it relies on the method adopted to analyze the same analyte. Hemolysis, lipemia, icterus, drugs, paraproteins, and other sample contaminants, such as gels, tube additives, and fibrin clots, are all examples of interference … Read more
  • Aspergillosis
    Micheli (1729) identified the genus Aspergillus, naming it after the perforated globe used to shower holy water during Catholic religious’ rites (aspergus te). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic invasive mycosis caused by hyaline molds of the genus Aspergillus (A.fumigatus, A.flavus, A.terreus, A.niger) and, less commonly, other Aspergillus species. Aspergillosis has a … Read more
  • Lupus Erythematosus Cell
    INTRODUCTION Hargraves et al., identified the LE cell phenomena in bone marrow in 1948. Lupus erythromatosus is an autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies attack cell nuclei components. In lupus erythromatosus, antibodies such as LE factor, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti double stranded DNA (anti ds DNA), anti single stranded DNA, anti … Read more
  • Mycoplasma
    Mycoplasmas differ from other bacteria because of their small size and absence of a cell wall. In taxonomy, mycoplasmas are distinguished from other bacteria in the Mollicutes class by the absence of cell walls (mollis, soft; cutis, skin, in Latin). Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides, the first to be identified, was … Read more
  • Anti-CCP
    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most prevalent inflammatory joint disease, affecting roughly 1% of the global adult population. It is characterized by persistent synovial inflammation, which frequently leads to progressive joint degeneration, disability, and a loss in quality of life. Although the exact cause of RA is unknown, autoimmunity is … Read more
  • Hypocalcemia and Hypercalcemia
    Calcium regulates a variety of physiologic functions, including neuromuscular communication, heart contractility, hormone production, and blood coagulation, and is essential for optimal cellular function and signaling. As a result of a number of feedback processes involving parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitmin D [1,25(OH)2D], extracellular calcium … Read more