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  • Trichomonas vaginalis
    Introduction Donne (1836) was the first to report Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal secretion.  Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite that can infect both males and females’ urogenital systems. T. vaginalis is a pathogenic parasite that causes vaginitis, urethritis, and prostatitis. … Read more
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA)
    PSA is a protein released by the prostate gland. PSA is a kallikrein-family serine protease that has been commonly used to screen men for prostate cancer. It’s also used to monitor recurrence and therapy response after initial treatment. PSA … Read more
  • Principle of Spectrophotometer
    Introduction A spectrophotometer is an analytical instrument that measures analytes in a solution in both qualitative and quantitative ways. It is the most flexible, reliable, and commonly used instrument in clinical chemistry for clinical diagnosis of blood, urine, or … Read more
  • Human Papillomaviruses
    Introduction Papillomavirus is one of two genera in the Papovaviridae family. The viruses in this category, however, vary significantly from those in the other genus, Polyomavirus, in terms of genome size, organization, and pathogenesis. Papillomaviruses (Latin: papilla = ‘nipple’; … Read more
  • How to differentiate artifacts in microscopy
    A lot of structures appear like parasites but aren’t. In microscopy, artifacts and confusers are two categories of structures that are most often present in stool and blood samples. Stool objects and confusers may be triggered by disease mechanisms, … Read more
  • Measurement of Urine and Plasma Osmolality
    Osmometry is a method of determining the concentration of solute particles in a solution that add to the osmotic pressure. The flow of a solvent (in biological systems, water) through membranes that separate two solutions is regulated by osmotic … Read more
  • Disorders of Sex Development
    Sex development starts in utero but progresses with the completion of sexual maturity and reproductive capacity into young adulthood. Three primary components may be classified into the major determinants of sex development: chromosomal sex, gonadal sex (sex determination), and … Read more
  • Specimen collection for Cytology of urine
    Specimen collection technique: • Voided urine• Ileal conduit urine• Catheter urine• Bladder washing• Upper urinary tract brush cytology Voided urine • It is the most common sample type• Voided urine undergoes degeneration very quickly hence preservative are used to … Read more
  • Chromosome nomenclature and G banding
    Arbitrarily, the terms karyogram, karyotype and ideogram have often been used. The term karyogram should be applied to a systematic sequence of chromosomes prepared either by drawing, digitizing, or extending photography, indicating that the chromosomes of a single cell … Read more