Giardia Lamblia

Anton Von Leeuwenhoek (1681) discovered Giardia Lamblia originally named Cercomonas intestinalis, later also known as Giardia intestinalis or Giardia duodenale in his stools, making it one of the earliest known protozoan parasites. It is called Giardia after Paris Professor Giard and Lamblia after Prague Professor Lambl, who provided a detailed description of the parasite. It is …

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Anticardiolipin Antibody (ACA, Cardiolipin Antibodies)

Test Description Cardiolipin antibodies are the most common kind of antiphospholipid antibody. These antibodies are essential in the mechanism of blood coagulation. When a patient develops autoantibodies (antibodies to anticardiolipin, or ACA) against cardiolipins, he or she is at a higher risk of chronic thrombosis. There are three groups of …

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