Sputum gram stain

Gram staining of expectorated sputum is a simplistic, easy-to-perform, commonly available, and low-cost diagnostic for pneumonia patients. Sputum Gram stain may detect many infections at the same time, and the test has a quick turnaround time. With adequate specimens, the sputum Gram stain can aid in establishing the right bacterial …

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alpha-Thalassemia

Thalassemia is a group of genetic conditions wherein defects in one or more globin genes generate reduced or insufficient production of the associated globin chains. Patients with minor genetic abnormalities are usually asymptomatic. Patients with more severe abnormalities have symptoms caused by one or more of the following: low formation …

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Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is the most common type of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with the main component being lipid accumulation and inflammation of the large arteries, which can eventually lead to clinical complications such as myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Clinically significant atherosclerosis is a slow-progressing …

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Rotavirus infection and diagnosis

Rotavirus is a widely recognised cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children all around the world. Almost every child under the age of five is at risk of contracting group A rotavirus (RVA). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that Rotavirus causes around 450,000 fatalities, more than 2 million hospitalizations, …

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Functions of Antibody

Von Behring and Kitasato discovered an agent in the blood capable of neutralizing diphtheria toxin in 1890. The term ‘Antik├Ârper,’ or antibodies, was used in investigations the following year to describe the agent’s capacity to distinguish between two immunological compounds. As a result, the substance that causes the creation of …

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