Sputum gram stain

Gram staining of expectorated sputum is a simplistic, easy-to-perform, commonly available, and low-cost diagnostic for pneumonia patients. Sputum Gram stain may detect many infections at the same time, and the test has a quick turnaround time. With adequate specimens, the sputum Gram stain can aid in establishing the right bacterial …

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Laboratory Diagnosis of Gonorrhea

The name gonorrhea, which means “flow of seed,” was initially used in the second century when the urethral discharge was mistaken for sperm. For years, the illnesses syphilis and gonorrhea were confused since they were frequently seen in the same person. In 1530, gonorrhea was regarded to be an early …

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LAP (Leucine Aminopeptidase) Test

Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is an enzyme that is employed in a test for the presumptive identification of Streptococci. LAP is a peptidase that hydrolyzes peptide bonds near free amino groups. LAP is known as leucine aminopeptidase because it responds most efficiently with leucine. Leucine- β-naphthylamide is hydrolyzed to yield β-naphthylamine. …

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Mycoplasma

Because of their small size and lack of a cell wall, mycoplasmas vary from other bacteria. Mycoplasmas are distinguishable from other bacteria in the Mollicutes (mollis, soft; cutis, skin, in Latin) class by their lack of cell walls in taxonomy. Nocard and Roux isolated Mycoplasma mycoides spp. mycoides from pleuropneumonia …

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Antimicrobial mechanism of action

Introduction Clinically potent antibacterial drugs are distinguished from antiseptics by their selective toxicity toward the microorganism rather than the host. In most instances, selectivity is defined by action on microbial metabolism or microbial cellular structures that differ from those of mammalian cells. Some drugs, for example, act on the synthesis of …

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