Clinical Chemistry

Types of Laboratory grade water

Types of Laboratory grade water

Water quality is considered by many laboratorians to be one of the most important preanalytical variables that impacts laboratory testing. Many people believe water to be a laboratory reagent, and it’s used to make buffers, blanks, calibrators, controls, mobile phase, reaction mixtures, and reagent reconstitution for a variety of lab tests. As a result, using…

Acid base balances and Arterial blood gas

Acid base balances and Arterial blood gas

Different kinds of biological fluids exist within the human body. These can be found in the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments, respectively. Plasma is stored in the vascular compartment. Interstitial (including lymphatic), cerebral, pleural, pericardial, and gastrointestinal fluids are all included in the extravascular compartment. All body fluids have critical functions, such as delivering oxygen…

Factors interfering analytic tests

Factors interfering analytic tests

As a result of interfering factors, test results might be affected. When it comes to interference factors, it relies on the method adopted to analyze the same analyte. Hemolysis, lipemia, icterus, drugs, paraproteins, and other sample contaminants, such as gels, tube additives, and fibrin clots, are all examples of interference factors that might occur. A…

Hypocalcemia and Hypercalcemia

Hypocalcemia and Hypercalcemia

Calcium is required for efficient cellular function and signaling, as well as neuromuscular transmission, cardiac contractility, hormone secretion, and blood coagulation. Extracellular calcium concentrations are controlled within an extremely narrow range thanks to a number of feedback processes including parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitmin D [1,25(OH)2D]. By activating the calcium…

Prostate specific antigen (PSA)

Prostate specific antigen (PSA)

PSA is a protein released by the prostate gland. PSA is a kallikrein-family serine protease that has been commonly used to screen men for prostate cancer. It’s also used to monitor recurrence and therapy response after initial treatment. PSA is developed in both normal and cancerous prostate tissue. PSA is generated as a proantigen (proPSA)…

C-Peptide

C-Peptide

C-Peptide (Connecting peptide) is the binding peptide cleaved in proinsulin insulin processing. Responsive immunoassays in blood and urine can easily detect it. Serum C-peptide is a particularly useful marker of endogenous insulin secretion (a synthetic insulin that does not contain C-peptide). A patient is being diagnosed with exogenous (injected) insulin at the same time, while…

Liver Function test

Liver Function test

LIVER The liver is the largest gland in the body, weighing between 1 and 2.3 kilograms. It occupies the majority of the right hypochondriac region, a portion of the epigastric region, and extends into the left hypochondriac region in the upper part of the abdominal cavity. The top and fore surfaces are flat and angled…

Fecal occult blood test

Fecal occult blood test

The fecal occult blood test detects bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract in a simple, fast, and low-cost manner. Although the treatment is not definitive for colorectal cancer or any other disease, it is commonly used as a colorectal cancer screening test, and is a leading cause of cancer death. When malignant or cancerous cells develop…