Clinical Chemistry

Why measure serum TMAO level?

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has a molecular mass of 75.1 daltons and belongs to the family of amine oxides. It is commonly found in the tissues of a wide range of marine creatures, particularly marine elasmobranchs, where TMAO is known to protect against the negative effects of temperature, salinity, high urea, and hydrostatic pressure. Urea, for …

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Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is the most common type of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with the main component being lipid accumulation and inflammation of the large arteries, which can eventually lead to clinical complications such as myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Clinically significant atherosclerosis is a slow-progressing disease that mostly affects the …

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LDL Cholesterol calculation equations

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or LDL cholesterol, is a kind of fat that circulates in the blood, transporting cholesterol across the body to where it’s needed for cell repair and depositing it inside artery walls. Because cholesterol and triglycerides are water insoluble, they must be bound to proteins in order to pass through the hydrophilic bloodstream. …

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Types of Laboratory grade water

Water quality is considered by many laboratorians to be one of the most important preanalytical variables that impacts laboratory testing. Many people believe water to be a laboratory reagent, and it’s used to make buffers, blanks, calibrators, controls, mobile phase, reaction mixtures, and reagent reconstitution for a variety of lab tests. As a result, using …

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Acid base balances and Arterial blood gas

Different kinds of biological fluids exist within the human body. These can be found in the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments, respectively. Plasma is stored in the vascular compartment. Interstitial (including lymphatic), cerebral, pleural, pericardial, and gastrointestinal fluids are all included in the extravascular compartment. All body fluids have critical functions, such as delivering oxygen …

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Factors interfering analytic tests

As a result of interfering factors, test results might be affected. When it comes to interference factors, it relies on the method adopted to analyze the same analyte. Hemolysis, lipemia, icterus, drugs, paraproteins, and other sample contaminants, such as gels, tube additives, and fibrin clots, are all examples of interference factors that might occur. A …

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Hypocalcemia and Hypercalcemia

Calcium is required for efficient cellular function and signaling, as well as neuromuscular transmission, cardiac contractility, hormone secretion, and blood coagulation. Extracellular calcium concentrations are controlled within an extremely narrow range thanks to a number of feedback processes including parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitmin D [1,25(OH)2D]. By activating the calcium …

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Measurement of Urine and Plasma Osmolality

Osmometry is a method of determining the concentration of solute particles in a solution that add to the osmotic pressure. The flow of a solvent (in biological systems, water) through membranes that separate two solutions is regulated by osmotic pressure. The ability to choose molecules of various sizes and shapes varies depending on the pore …

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