Clinical Pathology

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is the most common type of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with the main component being lipid accumulation and inflammation of the large arteries, which can eventually lead to clinical complications such as myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Clinically significant atherosclerosis is a slow-progressing disease that mostly affects the …

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Types of Laboratory grade water

Water quality is considered by many laboratorians to be one of the most important preanalytical variables that impacts laboratory testing. Many people believe water to be a laboratory reagent, and it’s used to make buffers, blanks, calibrators, controls, mobile phase, reaction mixtures, and reagent reconstitution for a variety of lab tests. As a result, using …

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Factors interfering analytic tests

As a result of interfering factors, test results might be affected. When it comes to interference factors, it relies on the method adopted to analyze the same analyte. Hemolysis, lipemia, icterus, drugs, paraproteins, and other sample contaminants, such as gels, tube additives, and fibrin clots, are all examples of interference factors that might occur. A …

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Anti-CCP

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most prevalent inflammatory joint disease, affecting roughly 1% of the global adult population. It is characterized by persistent synovial inflammation, which frequently leads to progressive joint degeneration, disability, and a loss in quality of life. Although the exact cause of RA is unknown, autoimmunity is strongly linked to the illness, …

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How to differentiate artifacts in microscopy

A lot of structures appear like parasites but aren’t. In microscopy, artifacts and confusers are two categories of structures that are most often present in stool and blood samples. Stool objects and confusers may be triggered by disease mechanisms, medications, and/or eating patterns. It may be perplexing to see free-living organisms in stool, which is …

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Collection of blood Specimens for coagulation studies

Venipuncture is a convenient way to provide a large blood sample that can be used for many various studies. A venipuncture, also called a phlebotomy, is punctured by a hypodermic needle in the superficial vein and blood is drawn into the vacuum tube or syringe. Performing a venipuncture involves several important steps that must be …

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Semen Analysis

Introduction Because the tissue composition varies with fraction, mixing all four fractions during ejaculation is required to create a decent semen specimen. Composition of semen Spermatozoa:    5% Seminal Fluid:    60% – 70% Prostate fluid: 20% – 30% Bulbourethral glands: 5 % Appearance Normal semen is clear and has a musty odor. Increased white …

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