Cytology

Flowcytometry Basics

Flowcytometry Basics

The measurement or quantification of cells suspended in a fluid phase is performed using flow cytometry. Fluorochrome-coupled antibodies specific for a certain cellular marker are used to label the cells. The fluidics chamber enables that cell travel via a laser beam in a single file, exciting the fluorochrome. A detector (photomultiplier) detects the produced light,…

Chromosome nomenclature and G banding

Chromosome nomenclature and G banding

Arbitrarily, the terms karyogram, karyotype and ideogram have often been used. The term karyogram should be applied to a systematic sequence of chromosomes prepared either by drawing, digitizing, or extending photography, indicating that the chromosomes of a single cell will describe an individual’s or even a species’ chromosomes. To identify the regular or irregular, colonial…

Fundamentals of Cytogenetic Techniques

Fundamentals of Cytogenetic Techniques

Cytogenetics is the study of chromosome morphology, structure, pathology, function, and behavior. Chromosomes are studied by cytogenetic techniques and are best studied at mitotic or meiotic metaphase, although some studies, such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods, may utilize interphase cells. Once dividing cells are obtained, mitotic arresting agents (such as Colcemid, colchicine, or…

Preparation of Cytological smear

Preparation of Cytological smear

Different methods for preparing the cytology smears are available. Nevertheless, these methods work best with different types of specimens. Understanding each procedure can help to determine the right approach for particular cases, eliminating procedures that may yield suboptimal findings and hinder diagnosis. Easy manual techniques with a minimum of supplies and equipment will offer excellent…