Immunology

Anticardiolipin Antibody (ACA, Cardiolipin Antibodies)

Anticardiolipin Antibody (ACA, Cardiolipin Antibodies)

Test Description Cardiolipin antibodies are the most common kind of antiphospholipid antibody. These antibodies are essential in the mechanism of blood coagulation. When a patient develops autoantibodies (antibodies to anticardiolipin, or ACA) against cardiolipins, he or she is at a higher risk of chronic thrombosis. There are three groups of antibodies to cardiolipin: IgG, IgM,…

Immune (Idiopathic) Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Immune (Idiopathic) Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), commonly known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, is an inflammatory bleeding disorder that affects both adults and infants. Until quite recently, it was considered an autoantibody disorder in which the reticuloendothelial system prematurely removed platelets, which were opsonized with antiplatelet antibody. More recently, findings have shown that there is a significant underproduction…

Double Immunodiffusion

Double Immunodiffusion

Immunodiffusion Assays involving the diffusion of soluble antigen and antibody include the precipitation reaction. When the concentrations reach a critical point, a visible precipitate is formed, which is made up of an insoluble complex of antigens and antibodies. In an agarose gel, precipitation reactions are the most stable. Double immunodiffusion, radial immunodiffusion, and flocculation tests…