Instrumentation

Flowcytometry Basics

Flowcytometry Basics

The measurement or quantification of cells suspended in a fluid phase is performed using flow cytometry. Fluorochrome-coupled antibodies specific for a certain cellular marker are used to label the cells. The fluidics chamber enables that cell travel via a laser beam in a single file, exciting the fluorochrome. A detector (photomultiplier) detects the produced light,…

Acid base balances and Arterial blood gas

Acid base balances and Arterial blood gas

Different kinds of biological fluids exist within the human body. These can be found in the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments, respectively. Plasma is stored in the vascular compartment. Interstitial (including lymphatic), cerebral, pleural, pericardial, and gastrointestinal fluids are all included in the extravascular compartment. All body fluids have critical functions, such as delivering oxygen…

Principle of Spectrophotometer

Principle of Spectrophotometer

A spectrophotometer is an analytical instrument that measures analytes in a solution in both qualitative and quantitative ways. It is the most flexible, reliable, and commonly used instrument in clinical chemistry for clinical diagnosis of blood, urine, or tissues. The majority of clinical chemistry procedures have been designed to create an end product (color) that…

How does magnetic bead DNA extraction work?

How does magnetic bead DNA extraction work?

Separating nucleic acid is an exceedingly essential tool for molecular biology. Until modern technology could be used, nucleic acid separation was a time-consuming and work-intensive process based on multiple extraction and centrifugation steps, often constrained by small yields and low purity of separation products, and not suitable for automation and upscaling. Specifically functionalized magnetic particles…

Types of Biosafety Levels

Types of Biosafety Levels

The control of potentially dangerous biological agents is an imperative goal of every biosafety system. In the sense in which infectious products are treated or preserved in the lab setting, the word “containment” is used to describe protection procedures, structures and facilities. Containment is designed to minimize or avoid access to potentially harmful substances by…