Why test blood TMAO level?

Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has a molecular mass of 75.1 Daltons and belongs to the family of amine oxides. It is commonly found in the tissues of a wide range of marine creatures, particularly marine elasmobranchs, where TMAO is known to…

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Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is the most common type of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with the main component being lipid accumulation and inflammation of the large arteries, which can eventually lead to clinical complications such as myocardial…

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Rotavirus infection and diagnosis

Rotavirus is a widely recognised cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children all around the world. Almost every child under the age of five is at risk of contracting group A rotavirus (RVA). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that…

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Laboratory diagnosis of Histoplamosis

Samuel Darling, a physician practicing at the Canal Zone Hospital in Panama, initially reported histoplasmosis and named the bacterium in 1904. He mistook the bacterium, which resembled Leishmania in tissues, for a parasite. Histoplasma capsulatum is a thermally dimorphic fungus…

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Functions of Antibody

Von Behring and Kitasato discovered an agent in the blood capable of neutralizing diphtheria toxin in 1890. The term ‘Antikörper,’ or antibodies, was used in investigations the following year to describe the agent’s capacity to distinguish between two immunological compounds.…

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Hepatic lipase deficiency

Hepatic Lipase belongs to the lipase gene family, which also includes pancreatic lipase, Hepatic Lipase, and endothelial lipase. In humans, the Hepatic Lipase (HL) gene is found on chromosome 15 (q15–q22). It is more over 60 kb in length, with…

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Laboratory Diagnosis of Gonorrhea

The name gonorrhea, which means “flow of seed,” was initially used in the second century when the urethral discharge was mistaken for sperm. For years, the illnesses syphilis and gonorrhea were confused since they were frequently seen in the same…

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LAP (Leucine Aminopeptidase) Test

Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is an enzyme that is employed in a test for the presumptive identification of Streptococci. LAP is a peptidase that hydrolyzes peptide bonds near free amino groups. LAP is known as leucine aminopeptidase because it responds most…

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Flowcytometry Basics

The measurement or quantification of cells suspended in a fluid phase is performed using flow cytometry. Fluorochrome-coupled antibodies specific for a certain cellular marker are used to label the cells. The fluidics chamber enables that cell travel via a laser…

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Cyclospora cayetanensis

The coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis was recently identified as a human intestinal pathogen. Schneider identified it in 1881, and Ashford reported it as a human infection in 1979. Cyclosporiasis, which is caused by ingestion of sporulated oocysts in contaminated food…

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