CLINICAL NOTES

Flowcytometry Basics

Flowcytometry Basics

The measurement or quantification of cells suspended in a fluid phase is performed using flow cytometry. Fluorochrome-coupled antibodies specific for a certain cellular marker are used to label the cells. The fluidics chamber enables that cell travel via a laser beam in a single file, exciting the fluorochrome. A detector (photomultiplier) detects the produced light,…

Cyclospora cayetanensis

Cyclospora cayetanensis

The coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis was recently identified as a human intestinal pathogen. Schneider identified it in 1881, and Ashford reported it as a human infection in 1979. Cyclosporiasis, which is caused by ingestion of sporulated oocysts in contaminated food or water, has been identified as a primary source of substantial morbidity in both immunocompetent…

Types of Laboratory grade water

Types of Laboratory grade water

Water quality is considered by many laboratorians to be one of the most important preanalytical variables that impacts laboratory testing. Many people believe water to be a laboratory reagent, and it’s used to make buffers, blanks, calibrators, controls, mobile phase, reaction mixtures, and reagent reconstitution for a variety of lab tests. As a result, using…

Acid base balances and Arterial blood gas

Acid base balances and Arterial blood gas

Different kinds of biological fluids exist within the human body. These can be found in the intracellular and extracellular fluid compartments, respectively. Plasma is stored in the vascular compartment. Interstitial (including lymphatic), cerebral, pleural, pericardial, and gastrointestinal fluids are all included in the extravascular compartment. All body fluids have critical functions, such as delivering oxygen…

Factors interfering analytic tests

Factors interfering analytic tests

As a result of interfering factors, test results might be affected. When it comes to interference factors, it relies on the method adopted to analyze the same analyte. Hemolysis, lipemia, icterus, drugs, paraproteins, and other sample contaminants, such as gels, tube additives, and fibrin clots, are all examples of interference factors that might occur. A…

Aspergillosis

Aspergillosis

Micheli (1729) identified the genus Aspergillus, naming it after the perforated globe used to shower holy water during Catholic religious’ rites (aspergus te). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic invasive mycosis caused by hyaline molds of the genus Aspergillus (A.fumigatus, A.flavus, A.terreus, A.niger) and, less commonly, other Aspergillus species. Aspergillosis has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations,…

Lupus Erythematosus Cell

Lupus Erythematosus Cell

INTRODUCTION Hargraves et al., identified the LE cell phenomena in bone marrow in 1948. Lupus erythromatosus is an autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies attack cell nuclei components. In lupus erythromatosus, antibodies such as LE factor, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti double stranded DNA (anti ds DNA), anti single stranded DNA, anti nucleoprotein, and anti nuclear glycoprotein…

Mycoplasma

Mycoplasma

Because of their small size and lack of a cell wall, mycoplasmas vary from other bacteria. Mycoplasmas are distinguishable from other bacteria in the Mollicutes (mollis, soft; cutis, skin, in Latin) class by their lack of cell walls in taxonomy. Nocard and Roux isolated Mycoplasma mycoides spp. mycoides from pleuropneumonia in calves in 1898. Pleuropneumonia-like…