Lupus Erythematosus Cell

INTRODUCTION Hargraves et al., identified the LE cell phenomena in bone marrow in 1948. Lupus erythromatosus is an autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies attack cell nuclei components. In lupus erythromatosus, antibodies such as LE factor, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti double … Read more

Hypocalcemia and Hypercalcemia

Calcium regulates a variety of physiologic functions, including neuromuscular communication, heart contractility, hormone production, and blood coagulation, and is essential for optimal cellular function and signaling. As a result of a number of feedback processes involving parathyroid hormone (PTH) and … Read more