LDL Cholesterol calculation equations

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or LDL cholesterol, is a kind of fat that circulates in the blood, transporting cholesterol across the body to where it’s needed for cell repair and depositing it inside artery walls. Because cholesterol and triglycerides are water…

Read More

Immune Response to Viral Infections

Viruses are well known for stimulating innate immune responses. Certain viruses, in particular, induce the production of interferons, which can inhibit viral replication by causing an antiviral reaction. NK cells are also in charge of virus control. NK cells are…

Read More

Aspergillosis

Micheli (1729) identified the genus Aspergillus, naming it after the perforated globe used to shower holy water during Catholic religious’ rites (aspergus te). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic invasive mycosis caused by hyaline molds of the genus Aspergillus (A.fumigatus, A.flavus, A.terreus,…

Read More

Lupus Erythematosus Cell

INTRODUCTION Hargraves et al., identified the LE cell phenomena in bone marrow in 1948. Lupus erythromatosus is an autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies attack cell nuclei components. In lupus erythromatosus, antibodies such as LE factor, antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti double…

Read More

Mycoplasma

Because of their small size and lack of a cell wall, mycoplasmas vary from other bacteria. Mycoplasmas are distinguishable from other bacteria in the Mollicutes (mollis, soft; cutis, skin, in Latin) class by their lack of cell walls in taxonomy.…

Read More

Anti-CCP

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most prevalent inflammatory joint disease, affecting roughly 1% of the global adult population. It is characterized by persistent synovial inflammation, which frequently leads to progressive joint degeneration, disability, and a loss in quality of life.…

Read More

Hypocalcemia and Hypercalcemia

Calcium is required for efficient cellular function and signaling, as well as neuromuscular transmission, cardiac contractility, hormone secretion, and blood coagulation. Extracellular calcium concentrations are controlled within an extremely narrow range thanks to a number of feedback processes including parathyroid…

Read More