Mycoplasma

Because of their small size and lack of a cell wall, mycoplasmas vary from other bacteria. Mycoplasmas are distinguishable from other bacteria in the Mollicutes (mollis, soft; cutis, skin, in Latin) class by their lack of cell walls in taxonomy. Nocard and Roux isolated Mycoplasma mycoides spp. mycoides from pleuropneumonia …

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Anti-CCP

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most prevalent inflammatory joint disease, affecting roughly 1% of the global adult population. It is characterized by persistent synovial inflammation, which frequently leads to progressive joint degeneration, disability, and a loss in quality of life. Although the exact cause of RA is unknown, autoimmunity is …

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Hypocalcemia and Hypercalcemia

Calcium is required for efficient cellular function and signaling, as well as neuromuscular transmission, cardiac contractility, hormone secretion, and blood coagulation. Extracellular calcium concentrations are controlled within an extremely narrow range thanks to a number of feedback processes including parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitmin D …

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Principle of Spectrophotometer

A spectrophotometer is an analytical instrument that measures analytes in a solution in both qualitative and quantitative ways. It is the most flexible, reliable, and commonly used instrument in clinical chemistry for clinical diagnosis of blood, urine, or tissues. The majority of clinical chemistry procedures have been designed to create …

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Human Papillomaviruses

Introduction Papillomavirus is one of two genera in the Papovaviridae family. The viruses in this category, however, vary significantly from those in the other genus, Polyomavirus, in terms of genome size, organization, and pathogenesis. Papillomaviruses (Latin: papilla = ‘nipple’; oma = ‘tumour’) cause benign skin tumors (papillomas) in their hosts, …

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Disorders of Sex Development

Sex development starts in utero but progresses with the completion of sexual maturity and reproductive capacity into young adulthood. Three primary components may be classified into the major determinants of sex development: chromosomal sex, gonadal sex (sex determination), and phenotypic type (sex differentiation). Abnormalities at any of these stages can …

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